Recently, the National Committee of Health and Health released the "Adult Diabetes Guidelines (2023 Edition)".This guide gives full play to the advantages of traditional Chinese and western medicine for modern nutrition and traditional food, integrate food and substances into a reasonable diet to assist in preventing and improving diabetes.
What is the relationship between diabetes and our daily diet?In the face of increasingly popular diabetes, how can we eat in daily life to ensure good health?The following two articles will interpret how to eat diabetes patients.
These three foods are often dare not eat, but it must not be less
Unreasonable diet structure can also lead to the occurrence of diabetes. For diabetic patients, when you mention certain foods, you dare not eat. In fact, this is also some misunderstandings. For example, these three types of food below are typical "daily lifeDare to eat, but never "" food. "
The first type: the food cannot be less
Even for diabetic patients, staple foods are a "good helper", not "Destroyer".
Without a staple food, energy has a big gap.The staple food is a friend of a diabetic, not an enemy.The staple food is the energy basis of patients with diabetes.Only by eating the staple food and eating can blood sugar be controlled.
Why do you say this way?
Because if there is no staple food for protection, the calories are mainly due to fat and protein. Many proteins will be burned like firewood and can not play a nutritional effect. In addition, patients with diabetes often dare not eat more. The protein may have insufficient intake.It is used for energy supply. In the long run, it will bring problems such as hair loss, poor skin condition, muscle relaxation, and decreased immunity.
So, which staple foods are good for blood glucose control?
It must be explained to everyone that no food has the effect of direct blood sugar, and the food itself has energy. It will inevitably lead to increased blood sugar during the digestion and absorption of the human body.
However, some foods have fast blood sugar, while some staple foods are relatively small, relatively smooth, and more suitable for people with diabetic people.
Patients with diabetes can choose staple foods such as whole grains and miscellaneous beans, such as dietary fiber, and the digestive speed and sugar speed are relatively slow.
If you are used to eating rice, you can add red beans, mung beans, kidney beans, oatmeal, buckwheat and other ingredients to rice.
Second: water cannot be less
Some diabetic patients will consciously reduce drinking water. In their opinion, "more drinking" can cause "multi -urine".
This is actually a kind of misunderstanding.
Diabetic drinking is due to the high blood sugar concentration, forcing the body to increase the amount of urine to discharge excessive sugar, and the urine excretion is much and the body is lost too much water to drink more water. This is a self -protection of the body.measure.
In short, "multi -urine" causes "more drinking", not "drinking more" leading to "multi -urine". If you figure out the relationship between the two, naturally you will get out of the misunderstanding of "fear of drinking water".
Patients with diabetes should also develop good habits of time and quantitative drinking water.
Patients with normal heart and kidney function and have no special contraindications, do not drink less than 1500 ml of daily drinking water.If diabetic patients are in a state of water deficiency, blood sugar may increase significantly, resulting in increased plasma osmotic pressure. As a result, the hypertonic urine volume increases, causing the water in the body to be further lost and forming a vicious cycle.
What water is best to drink?There is no doubt that the best drink is boiled water.
A large number of studies have shown that the safety, purity, and penetration of boiled water are very good. I hope everyone uses boiling water as one of the most important sources of drinks.
Third: fruit cannot be less
There are three treasures in fruits: vitamins, inorganic salts, dietary fiber.Encourage everyone to eat, including people with diabetes.
For friends with diabetes, you need to follow the following two basic principles to eat fruits.
Basic Principles 1: Blood glucose is stable
If the empty blood glucose is controlled below 7 mmore, the blood glucose two hours after the meal is controlled below 11mmol, and the glycated hemoglobin is controlled below 7.0%.When these three conditions are met, the premise of enjoying the fruit is established.
On the contrary, if the recent blood glucose control is not smooth enough, high and low, and often fluctuate, there is no prerequisite for eating fruits.
Basic Principles 2: Good control
People with diabetes should choose good types.For fruits below 15 % of sugar, you can choose in moderation: such as watermelon, melon, strawberry, cherry, apple, Spring, citrus, grapefruit, peach, plum, apricot, cantaloupe, kiwi, pineapple, etc.
In fact, most of the fruits are in hypoglycemia. Even friends with diabetes, on the basis of stable blood sugar, can rest assured that they can be used as a meal.You must control the amount when eating.The amount of fruits a day is best controlled between 150-200 grams and eat between two meals.
Text/Yukang (Professor of Clinical Nutrition Department of Beijing Union Hospital)
Control blood sugar, keep your diet in mind the "four points"
What should I eat to control blood sugar?How to eat science?Han Yan, the main physician of the Department of Emergency Hospital (formerly Coal General Hospital), came to the recruitment.
Eat three meals every day to add meals 2-3 times to prevent hypoglycemia 2-3 times
Sugar friends must have a dietary law and quantitatively quantitative.Eat at least three meals a day, and the interval between the two meals should be 4-5 hours.Patients with insulin or patients who are prone to hypoglycemia need to add meals between three main meals 2-3 times, and some foods can be taken from the three main meals for meals. This is an effective measure to prevent hypoglycemia.
And you must chew slowly when eating, which is conducive to digestion and absorption.Breakfast is recommended to eat at 6-8 in the morning, because all sugar hormones start effect after 8 am, which has a great impact on blood sugar.If you are hungry before going to bed, you can be a regular snack to prevent low blood sugar at night.Be careful not to add meals at will. Under the premise that the total amount is unchanged, you should choose low sugar vegetables, such as cucumber, tomatoes, etc., such as cucumber, tomatoes, etc. The sugar friends who control the blood sugar in 10 mmol/L can eat the fruits appropriately. Time choose two meals in two meals.Eating between.Be sure to eat fresh seasonal fruits, and do not squeeze juice, because the content of fruits is low, not only does it not have a sense of fullness, but also quickly increases blood sugar.
The total intake of fruits should be controlled within 100-200g per day, which is equivalent to half of ordinary fruit intake.You can also eat some nuts in moderation, such as walnuts, almonds, pistachios, and tonsils. It is advisable to calculate the total energy at 30-50g per day, while reducing the intake of grease in the meal.
Food should be diverse and avoid a certain food
Sugar friends must be diverse in diet and cannot prefer a certain food, otherwise it will lead to gradually increased blood sugar in the long run and malnutrition.According to a reasonable proportion, various foods should be widely consumed, including cereals, animal foods, vegetables, fruits, beans, milk and oil to meet the nutritional balance and meet the various nutritional needs of the human body.Specifically, daily recipes can be refined into ——
1 bag of milk daily, 200-250g of carbohydrates (including grains, fruits, vegetables, beans);
3 units of high -quality protein per day (1 high -quality protein = pork 1 two = fish 2 two = egg 1);
500g of vegetables per day;
Take more eggs, milk, and soy products, it is best not to be missing every day;
Daily intake of about 50 grams of lean meat;
Eat 2-3 times a week, these foods are rich in high-quality protein.
Studies have found that if you want to control blood sugar, protein intake is very important.You can eat fruits appropriately when blood glucose permits. You should choose fruits with relatively low sugar content such as apples, pears, and oranges. Eat less fruits with relatively high sugar content such as bananas, jujube, lychee, persimmons.Black food is also the first choice for sugar friends. For example, black chicken is low fat, low sugar, and high protein, which is very suitable for the weak and cold sugar friends.There are also shiitake mushrooms and black sesame seeds, which are rich in selenium, and selenium has the same physiological activity that regulates sugar metabolism as insulin, which helps reduce blood sugar.
Carbohydrates should choose composite staple foods per meal not more than 100 grams
Do not eat more than 100 grams per meal. Eat more coarse grains such as corn and sweet potatoes. Under the premise of controlling total calories, carbohydrates should account for about 60%of the total heat.In daily diet, sugar friends should choose composite carbohydrates, especially high -fiber vegetables, beans and whole grains.Sugar Friends staplers are particularly recommended for sweet potatoes or purple potatoes. The rice rice lift index is 87, while the sweet potato sugar lift index is 54.Compared with the same weight rice, sweet potato calories are only 29%of rice, and dietary fiber is about 2 times that of rice.Sweet potato replace rice can reduce calorie intake and reduce blood sugar fluctuations.Miscellaneous rice is also a good staple food for sugar friends, because miscellaneous rice is rich in dietary fiber, B vitamin and mineral elements. It has strong chewing and helps to stabilize blood sugar and control weight.Boil grain rice (1: 2) add more water than boiled white rice (1: 1-1.3). The cooking rice is larger. The same bowl of rice will be smaller.Given with slow water absorption such as red beans (miscellaneous beans) and brown rice needs to be soaked for 1 hour in advance.
It is recommended to choose vegetable oil for food to eat lighter oil.
The principle of sugar friends is mainly light and easy to digest, and choose light food with less oil and less salt.Cooking should be used for vegetable oil, such as corn oil, sunflower oil, peanut oil, soybean oil, etc. These good vegetable oils are rich in unsaturated fatty acids.These fatty acids can help the normal operation of cholesterol, avoid the deposition of cholesterol, and have a positive effect on controlling blood sugar.In addition, there are some precautions for light diet to remind everyone:
Be sure to limit the intake of salt. The daily intake of salt should be limited within 6g. 6G generally refers to the amount of a beer bottle cap.
Eat more green leafy vegetables, such as spinach, rapeseed, vegetables, etc., as well as carrots, onions, etc., insist on eating more than 500 grams a day;
Do not eat fried foods and spicy and irritating foods, such as fritters, oil cakes, and spicy spicy. Do not eat it;
Try not to eat sweet potatoes, potatoes, noodles, taro, etc.
Try to control the intake of sugar -free cakes. Although this kind of food does not contain sucrose, the cake is made of starch, and a lot of oil will be used during the production process, which will also generate heat and cannot be eaten casually.
Text/Mo Peng (Emergency Hospital)
Source: Beijing Youth Daily