[Primary two said] Smoking is one of the choices for modern women to solve problems.However, once a smoking addiction is formed, it is really difficult to quit smoking.Nevertheless, once women who are used to smoking, once they are pregnant, they must quit smoking.Professor Emily Ost today tells everyone that if women who are still smoking during pregnancy will not be good for the baby!Today, Xiao Er provides more rational suggestions and the truth of pregnancy.This book has not been officially listed, but the business review was authorized by CITIC Press, and then the topic of alcohol and coffee. Below is the fifth issue of the wonderful serial content. Do not miss it.
Text | Emily Oster’s main translation | Li Minyi Liu Liwei Zhang Luxia
It seems that most women drink alcohol and coffee before pregnancy, and except for pregnancy, these two substances are recognized as safe (within a moderate range, not drunk, etc.).On the contrary, people do not recommend smoking at any time.
If you smoke, your doctor is likely to persuade you to quit smoking.But it is difficult to quit smoking, and many smokers have tried to quit smoking.The question is that there are extra reasons to quit smoking under the condition of pregnancy?
The answer is very sure.Even moderately smoking is not good for the baby.Smoking women have higher risks in premature birth, placenta problems, and low weight of baby birth weight.In addition, the baby of the smoking pregnant woman suffers from sudden baby death syndrome
Sudden death syndrome (SIDS) refers to the sudden death of the infant during the infant. Before and after death, the diagnosis of related diseases was obtained from various examinations such as medical history, symptoms, and even deadly after death.In clinical practice, it is not enough to exclude other diseases that cause children’s sudden death only by relying on medical history and conventional examinations (such as congenital heart disease, congenital brain deformities, child abuse, etc.).Corpsee.Liu Xiaoyan, the cause and prevention of sudden death syndrome, "Combination of Practical Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine", 2012, 12 (3): 93-94.——The translator’s note (SIDS, sometimes called cradle death) risk is higher.Good news is that smoking quitting during pregnancy will reduce these problems.
It is not completely clear about the specific scientific explanation of how harmful smoking is, but we have some views.Tobacco contains a large amount of chemicals, but the most important of which are nicotine and carbon monoxide.Both substances will hinder the mother’s oxygen to the fetus.Reduced oxygen means slow development.In addition, vascular contraction caused by nicotine will damage the placenta, which is also the source of pregnancy complications.
We can directly see these complications.First look at a representative study, which analyzes all babies born in Missouri from 1989 to 2005 (totaling more than 1 million).The author of the paper simply investigated compared to women who smoke during pregnancy and women who do not smoke.
☆ Placental stripping early: After 20 weeks of pregnancy or childbirth, the placenta in the normal position is peeled off from the uterine wall before child delivery.Xie Xing and Gou Wenli edited, "Obstetrics and Gynecology",
☆ Pre -placenta: Placenta is attached to the front wall, rear or side wall of the uterine body during normal pregnancy.After 28 weeks of pregnancy, if the placenta is attached to the lower section of the uterus, the lower edge reaches or covers the inner mouth of the cervix, and the position is very low, it is the front placenta.Xie Xing and Gou Wenli edited, "Obstetrics and Gynecology", p. 126.
There are many pregnancy complications mentioned here, some have an impact on mothers, and some have an impact on babies.Female women are more likely to have anemia, and it is more likely to have placenta problems, premature birth and death.At the same time, the impact of smoking on the weight of newborns is huge: pregnant women who smoke have the possibility of having low weight by having low weight than pregnant women who are not smoking.
Regarding drinking, moderate alcohol and alcoholism have a great difference in impact on pregnancy.Is it okay to smoke moderate to smoke? The answer is no.Studies in Missouri pointed out that women who suck 1-9 cigarettes a day are the same as those who smoke more than one pack of women.
What if you smoke during pregnancy? In 2008, I published a study in the Netherlands in the Netherlands.Researchers have found that pregnant women have the greatest impact on the weight of newborns in the late pregnancy.
The baby born to pregnant women who suck more than 9 cigarettes a day after 25 weeks of pregnancy will weigh about 7 ounces smaller than those who do not smoke pregnant women; this shows that the baby’s weight is 6%lighter!Smoking, quitting smoking in the later stages of pregnancy still has a huge effect.
What makes people feel more scary is that the risks brought by smoking to babies seem to be limited to the uterus.A British study surveyed the risk differences between the children of smoking mothers and children who did not smoke.The risk of children born with 1-9 cigarettes every day is more than 4 times higher than those who die from children who do not smoke their mothers who die from sudden death syndrome.Compared to children who do not smoke mothers, the risk of children born with 20 cigarettes a day of child -born mothers are almost 8 times higher than the risk of infant death syndrome.In other words: In the UK, 86%of the children who died of sudden death of infant death syndrome were because their mother smoked.
Moreover, not only the mother smokes, but also the second -hand cigarette (for example, from his father or ancestor), it will also lead to many of the same negative results.A 2010 review literature found that the babies gave birth to the mother who sucked second -hand smoke during pregnancy than those babies who did not suck the second -hand smoke.It is worth mentioning that the research object is a woman in a large number of smoke environments, and its smoke volume is equivalent to living with a smoking husband.Occasionally contact smokers (at night with the restaurant with the smokers and the smokers walking on the street), there will be no big problems.
So smoking looks very dangerous.But if you read other parts of this chapter, you should think: Isn’t it because of these different aspects of these smokers in other aspects of smoking? Perhaps smoking women are different from those who do not smoke.Women who live together are different.Or other factors affect women’s smoking and such bad children’s development results.
Your worry makes sense.In the first study in Missouri, from the overall perspective, women who smoke are different from those women who do not smoke: smoking women are younger, have more children, have low education levels, and do less.Pre -delivery care and so on.We already know that these factors are related to low weight and premature birth of newborns.
Under normal circumstances, the ideal situation is that there are some evidence of random tests.You will think that this will be the same as the research of alcohol and coffee -who will let you do something that forces people to smoke? However, it turns out that it is because people believe that smoking is not good and it is difficult to quit smoking.Therefore, random tests do the opposite: encourage women to quit smoking.
Under normal circumstances, researchers will find a set of smoking pregnant women, and then randomly allocate half of them to the experimental group to accept smoking.If some people in the experimental group quit smoking, we can understand the impact of smoking on the baby by comparing the baby born of the mother and the mother of the control group.
A 2008 literature review summarized 64 similar studies.The 16 of these studies also collected the baby’s information.One thing we learned from it is that it is really difficult to quit smoking: In these 16 studies, only 5 of the five studies have successfully quit smoking.But in these studies, I saw the benefits of babies: the babies born of pregnant women who were encouraged to quit smoking were about 2 ounces of babies born in pregnant women who did not quit smoking.
This may not seem to change very much, but think about it: In fact, the effect of successful quitting smoking is rare among the entire crowd.On average, about 90%of women in the control group will continue to smoke, and at the same time, 80%of the experimental group encouraged to quit smoking is still smoking.If we can see the difference between the weight of the newborn from the two groups with the difference in the number of smokers, then the impact of no smoking must be very large.In the research mentioned in this review, at least one study has done follow -up tracking research. It has adjusted the previous estimates to calculate the impact of complete smoking quitting on the weight of newborns.They estimate that there are 14 ounces, almost 1 pound!
The impact of smoking cessation on premature birth is more significant.Although the smoking rate has only changed slightly, research has found that the risk of premature birth of those women who have been advised to quit smoking has dropped by 28%.
Here is an example recommended in medical guidelines: if you smoke during pregnancy or try to smoke during pregnancy, there is another reason to let you quit smoking. Smoking is already harmful to you, and it is also harmful to your fetus.Random trials show that quitting smoking has great benefits, and you can experience the benefits of quitting smoking at any time.There is no evidence that smoking before pregnancy can cause some problems, and even quitting smoking even better even when pregnancy is better.
In the end, one thing that needs to be explained is: Once you find that you are pregnant, the best choice is to quit smoking. Of course, the ideal thing is that you quit smoking before pregnancy.But what if you ca n’t quit, or you ca n’t quit if you do n’t help? More specifically, try nicotine replacement therapy.
Nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) is a nicotine preparation in the form of non -tobacco and good dose of safety. Nicotine provided in tobacco.After a period of time, the intake of nicotine to the smoke quitting gradually decreased to the minimum, and then overcome the habit of smoking and achieve the purpose of successful smoking.
Nicotine patch is a concentration dependent sticker, which continuously releases low -level nicotine through the skin to replace nicotine obtained from cigarettes.Nicotine patch is divided into different doses. Users can choose different doses of patch according to the amount of smoking.Just put the patch on the skin when using it, just change it once a day.It is more convenient to use.The nicotine patch can provide nicotine at a relatively balanced speed, which can maintain a stable nicotine blood concentration of 4 to 16h, which is effective for nicotine addicts.The success rate after the use of patch can reach 35%to 39%.It belongs to Nicotine’s replacement therapy.
In fact, there are many random trials using nicotine replacement therapy, but the conclusions are not convincing.The main problem is that most of these studies have no effect on smoking: when using nicotine substitutions, these women seem to have not stopped smoking, which makes it difficult for researchers to figure out the impact of nicotine replacement therapy on their babies.37 At least one of the studies gives a positive evidence, providing women with nicotine gum to reduce their smoking.This study found that the average body of babies who got nicotine gum, the average body of babies who got nicotine gum is important than those who did not get nicotine gum, which was about 11 ounces.This makes people see hope, but this still lacks persuasiveness.These treatment requires a doctor’s prescription, so you must discuss with your doctor and let them provide the benefits of these intervention measures in order to have a better guidance for you.
The focus of this section ★ Smoking during pregnancy is harmful to your baby.
This article is excerpted from CITIC Publishing House’s upcoming "Good Pregnancy Big Data: A Guidelines for the Reasonable pregnancy of an economist"