The opening of the second child policy allows many parents who are eager to have one child as much as possible.However, at the same time as the second child, the incidence of defects in the birth of our fetus has increased significantly.Professor Luo Yanmin, chief physician of obstetrics at the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat -sen University, reminded that he wants to give birth to a "high -quality baby". Pregnant mothers should do a good job of prenatal examinations and perform prenatal diagnosis to prevent birth defects if necessary.
Professor Luo Yanmin explained that prenatal examination refers to a series of examinations performed by pregnant women and fetuses in order to discover abnormalities in pregnant women and fetuses in time, and to diagnose and treat early to ensure the safety of pregnant women and fetuses.
"The prenatal examination in the broad sense includes pre -pregnancy examinations, such as blood drawing, B -ultrasound and other assessments to whether it is suitable for the risk of pregnancy and pregnancy. Examination during pregnancy. my country ’s health care guidelines for pregnancy in 2018 will be divided into these periods: 6 to 14 weeks, 15-20 weeks, 20-24 weeks, 25-28 weeks, 29 ~ 32 weeks, 33 ~ 36 weeks, and 33-36 weeks and 33-36 weeks. From 37 to 41 weeks, it is expected to check about 7 to 11 times during pregnancy. If there are high risk factors, the number of inspections will increase. "
For the first prenatal examination, the doctor will ask the medical history in detail: whether there are chronic diseases, whether there is a family history of genetic diseases, whether there are some drugs, whether there are bad fertility history such as abortion, premature birth, fetal deformity, etc.Physical examination: listening to cardiopulmonary, blood pressure, body weight, evaluating weight index; in addition, a full set of blood testing, including routine hematuria, liver and kidney function, and B -ultrasound, comprehensively evaluate the pregnancy of pregnant women and fetal development.
Pre -delivery inspections seem to be complicated, so how many B -ultrasound do I need to do the entire prenatal inspection process?Professor Luo Yanmin replied that it did not stipulate how many B -ultrasounds need to be done before giving birth, but these 4 B -ultrasound are particularly important:
1, 11 ~ 13 weeks +6 early screening. At this time, B -ultrasound can evaluate whether the fetus survives, whether it is a single or twin, whether it is abnormal for early;Non -perfection risk.
2, 20 ~ 24 weeks to conduct a series of systemic checks on the fetus through 3D b B -ultrasound to see the overall growth and whether there are malformations.
3, 28-32 weeks of late growth assessment, timely discover abnormalities such as whether the fetus has hydrocephalus, and stagnation of growth and development.
4. Do a B -ultrasound before childbirth, mainly evaluate the weight of the fetus and the condition of amniotic fluid, so as to choose the method of childbirth and prepare for childbirth.
Professor Luo Yanmin said that prenatal examination is almost a check that every pregnant woman needs to be performed before pregnancy, and for high -risk fetuses, a series of examinations will also be performed to clarify whether the fetus has abnormal chromosomes, micro -lack of micro -repeated syndrome, and inside the palaceInfection and other abnormalities, determine whether you can continue to pregnancy or evaluate the prognosis of the fetus, so as to avoid the birth of a fetus with severe birth defects.
Preparatory diagnosis can be divided into intervention and non -interfering, and intervention includes velvet biopsy, amniotic fluid puncture, umbilical cord puncture; non -interventional refers to non -invasive examinations, such as ultrasonic and magnetic resonance.
The interventional prenatal diagnosis takes the amniotic fluid puncture as an example. Usually, the puncture needle is pierced into the amniotic cavity under the guidance of B -ultrasound to avoid the fetus with a little amniotic fluid test. The surgery process is very simple.
Non -interpreter prenatal diagnosis such as B -ultrasound, when the B -ultrasound appears that the fetus has congenital malformations, and the diagnosis is the specific abnormal abnormality, then it is called diagnosis rather than screening.
Professor Luo Yanmin pointed out that prenatal diagnosis, especially interventional prenatal diagnosis, has certain abortion risks, so it is not suitable for everyone.For high -risk people, such as ultrasound discovery of the fetus abnormalities, too many amniotic fluid, limited growth of fetus, high risk of elderly pregnant women or prenatal screening, and pregnant women with a history of genetic diseases or adverse fertility. It is recommended to do prenatal diagnosis.
Preparatory diagnosis also has certain taboos. Pregnant women are in the acute infection period such as fever, abdominal pain and vaginal bleeding, and local skin puncture infection.
The second -child mother is not directly linked to the birth defect, but because the second child is often at the age, there are certain risks in the elderly pregnant women:
1. With the increase of age, early embryo stopped and natural abortion, the risk of non -rectification of chromosomes in the fetus increased significantly.
2. Elderly mothers may be accompanied by high blood pressure, diabetes, hyperthyroidism, systemic lupus erythematosus and other diseases. They need long -term medication before pregnancy. These drugs may have a bad impact on the fetus.
Therefore, when preparing for pregnancy, old -age pregnant women need to evaluate whether the original disease is stable, whether the physical conditions are suitable for pregnancy, and whether the drugs are taken will affect the fetus.During pregnancy, pregnant women should do prenatal examinations as soon as possible. Through B -ultrasound, it is determined whether there are obvious fetal malformations. Pregnant women aged 35 to 39 and age are high -risk factors.Chromosome is non -rectifier.
In addition, during the entire pregnancy period, in addition to a prenatal examination on time, pregnant women must also do a good job of self -care, maintain a balanced diet during pregnancy, control weight, and learn to monitor fetal movement.